The sources, fate, transport, and remediation of perfluorinated and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) are of considerable interest today. This broad group of compounds is proving to be present in groundwater at a wide range of sites, often comingled with other contaminants such as chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons. One characteristic uniting these compounds is carbon to fluorine (C-F) bonds, which are among the strongest bonds in organic chemistry. This makes PFAS compounds useful for a wide range of applications, but also makes them very difficult to remediate.
The susceptibility of PFAS compounds to in-situ chemical remediation, by either oxidative or reductive approaches, is an area of active research. Some groups of PFAS compounds are readily susceptible to chemical oxidation utilizing methods that generate hydroxyl and/or sulfate radicals. However, oxidative treatment is commonly incomplete and more recalcitrant PFAS compounds, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are reported as reaction products that are not further degraded (e.g., Houtz and Sedlak, 2012; McKenzie et al., 2015; Santos et al., 2016). However, other researchers report degradation of PFAS compounds including PFOA under oxidizing conditions (e.g., Liu et al., 2012; Park et al., 2016), via reactions that sequentially eliminate CF2 groups and produce shorter-chained intermediate and final products. This pattern suggests that nucleophilic attack by reactive species other than hydroxyl or sulfate radicals is responsible. Mitchell et al. (2014) report PFOA is mineralized in catalyzed hydrogen peroxide reactions that primarily produce superoxide radicals and hydroperoxide, rather than hydroxyl or sulfate radicals. Superoxide and hydroperoxide are reactive oxygen species that can be formed in some oxidative treatment systems; they are strong nucleophiles and can attack a wide range of compounds that are not susceptible to oxidative degradation by hydroxyl or sulfate radicals.
Geo-Cleanse has developed and patented (U.S. Patent 8,556,537) an in-situ chemical remediation approach that effectively generates superoxide radicals. This method was initially developed to target compounds such as chloromethanes (e.g., carbon tetrachloride) and certain fluorinated compounds (e.g., Freon 113) that are not reactive towards hydroxyl radicals but are readily destroyed by superoxide. We have now completed research to extend application of our method to PFAS compounds. Our method utilizes reaction of hydrogen peroxide with manganese dioxide under neutral to slightly basic conditions to effectively produce superoxide radicals. Laboratory tests confirm that this approach effectively destroys PFOA, without measurable formation of shorter-chained PFAS compounds (Figure 1); indeed, some shorter-chained PFAS compounds (such as PFHpA) that are present at trace concentrations in reagent blanks are also destroyed (Figure 1).
Additional research is needed to further optimize our approach and improve PFAS degradation. We have had considerable success with this approach at DNAPL sites impacted with a wide range of comingled compounds, and thus our approach may also be applicable at typical fire training or other sites in which PFAS compounds are comingled with a range of other contaminants, without concern that incomplete degradation will transform PFAS compounds into more mobile or toxic intermediates.
For a PDF copy of this article and the references cited, please click here.
Please contact Will Moody for questions regarding this article.
Geo-Cleanse International, Inc.
Phone: (732) 970-6696
Focused Remediation Seminars Series
Wednesday, May 3 2017 Location: Various Locations
Dates & Locations:
May 3, 2017 – Parsippany, New Jersey
September 20, 2017 – Detroit, Michigan
November 15, 2017 – Denver, Colorado
Geo-Cleanse International, Inc. is pleased to announce that we have joined a new seminar series. Leaders within the environmental industry have joined together to develop educational seminars with a focus on providing clear and useful remediation technologies and monitoring methods. Our seminars will provide detailed information on best-available remedial technologies, modern advances in process chemistries, design and selection criteria, remedial construction and implementation strategies, and field monitoring.
We are offering these seminars completely FREE for you to attend! We’ll also provide you with a complimentary lunch, and coffee breaks throughout the day. To top it off, you’ll also receive a certificate for 4 CEU credits and or LSRP credits (dependent upon location)!
On May 19, 2016 – The Environmental Business Council (EBC) of the Commerce and Industry Association of New Jersey (CIANJ) honored and presented distinguished service awards to several recipients for their involvement with its inception. Since 1995, the council’s mission has been “to recognize the important economic role the environmental industry plays within the state, to demonstrate that environmental issues are also business issues, and to teach the business and regulatory communities that environmental responsibility and economic growth are fundamentally related.” Geo-Cleanse International, Inc.’s Vice President, Robert Glaser, was one of the recipients of the award (above picture of all recipients).
Robert Glaser is a Vice President at Geo-Cleanse International, Inc. and has been working with the company for the past 20 years. He has experience in both the legal and business fields, working in many areas of the industry, including in-house counsel and private practice. Mr. Glaser has a Bachelor’s of Science degree, an M.B.A., and a J.D. from Syracuse University. He is admitted to practice law in New Jersey, New York, and Arizona.
To read the article, as published in Commerce magazine,
click here or visit http://www.cianj.org/.
CIANJ hosted the 20th Anniversary Celebration of the Environmental Business Council at the Renaissance Woodbridge Hotel in Iselin, NJ.
Since 1995, Geo-Cleanse has been a full-service remediation contractor dedicated to the design and application of in-situ technologies. Our team includes engineers, geologists, chemists, and scientists with over 100 years of combined in-situ chemical remediation experience. We have completed hundreds of projects across the United States, Canada and Europe including some of the largest and most challenging remediation projects. We have been recognized on the U.S. EPA’s Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN) website for our involvement with several projects, which provide examples of combining multiple technologies to address contamination and remediate sites.
We have always provided the industry with free site evaluations to determine if the technology that we offer is appropriate from an application and cost standpoint, in-house laboratory treatability studies ranging from contaminant destruction to oxidant demands, and field-scale design and implementation services utilizing a variety of reagents. We offer site-specific designs with the primary objective of achieving the remedial goals in a cost-effective and efficient manner.
The environmental remediation industry is constantly evolving and we continue to adapt to the changes and emerging contaminants of concern [e.g., chloromethanes, Freons, 1,4-dioxane, and per- and polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFOA / PFOS)]. Due to an overwhelming demand from our valued clientele, we are excited to announce that we now offer our application services for projects that have been designed for the utilization of a wide range of reagents, substrates, amendments, surfactants and other well-known chemical and bioremediation products. With our specialized equipment and experienced staff, you will find our application services are just as professional as our current work product.
We thank you for your continued business and support. If you have any questions regarding our services or need assistance with a potential project, please contact Will Moody (email@example.com) or Stephanie Turkot (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Geo-Cleanse International, Inc. (Geo-Cleanse) has been recognized on the U.S. EPA’s Contaminated Site Cleanup Information (CLU-IN) website for our involvement with several projects, which provide examples of combining multiple technologies to address contamination and remediate sites.
The combination of proven remediation technologies (e.g., thermal desorption, dual phase extraction, in-situ chemical oxidation and/or reduction, and biological treatment) is no longer a concept of the past for achieving low remediation goals or at difficult and complex sites, such as sites impacted with dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPL). The incorporation of multiple remediation technologies at the same site can provide many advantages, including overall improved performance, reduced costs, and site closure. The EPA, as well as other government agencies, have been active in providing innovative treatment and site characterization technology information to the environmental community.
The sites on the EPA website, which Geo-Cleanse was involve with are (click title for case study):
Naval Training Center at Orlando, Study Area 17
(ISCO with hydrogen peroxide-BIO-MNA)
Orlando Events Center
(ISCO with hydrogen peroxide & permanganate-Excavation)
Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay Site 11
(Pump & Treat-ISCO with hydrogen peroxide-BIO-MNA)
Geo-Cleanse recently completed work on two additional challenging projects that were successfully remediated with combined chemical remediation technologies:
Former Manufacturing Facility in Greenville, SC
for Roger & Callcott Environmental
(Excavation-Thermal Desorption-Pump & Treat-SVE-ISCO with Permanganate-ISCR with ZVI)
Former Grasselli Chemical Site – NJ Brownfield
(ISCO with Iron-Catalyzed Hydrogen Peroxide, ISCR with Manganese-Catalyzed Hydrogen Peroxide)
For over 20 years, Geo-Cleanse has been dedicated to the design and implementation of in-situ chemical remediation technologies on hundreds of sites across the United States, and internationally in Europe. Geo-Cleanse focuses on developing site-specific innovative in-situ remedial approaches for complex sites.
On January 7, 2016, Dr. Dan Bryant of Geo-Cleanse International, Inc. provided a technical presentation during an internet-based online training seminar for the Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC). The ITRC in conjunction with the U.S. EPA’s Technology Innovation and Field Services Division develops and provides a variety of training courses annually to state and federal officials, consultants, the private sector and other members of the environmental industry. This state-led coalition consists of regulators, industry experts, academia, citizen stakeholders and federal partners. The training courses are free to attend, and provide technical and regulatory information relating to environmental technologies and innovative approaches within the industry.
Topics & Presenters:
Introduction & Remedial Objectives – Alex MacDonald, CA Regional Water Quality Control Board
Conceptual Site Model (CSM) – Wilson Clayton, Trihydro Corporation
Remedial Technologies – Dr. Dan Bryant, Geo-Cleanse International, Inc.
Monitoring – Aaron Cohen, Florida DEP –
Remedy Evaluation – Tamzen Macbeth, CDM Smith
The topic of this training course was “Integrated DNAPL Site Strategy (IDSS).” Over 200 people registered for this seminar, which lasted over two hours. Dr. Bryant, a member of the ITRC team, provided a technical presentation on remediation technologies and assessing performance, coupling technologies, transitioning to other technologies, and relevant case studies. The other presentations included introduction to IDSS, remedial objectives, monitoring, conceptual site model, and remedy evaluation.
For a copy of this webinar, please click here.
For information or questions regarding this course, please contact Dan Bryant or Stephanie Turkot.
August 2014 Newsletter
Oxidant demand is a metric commonly evaluated in laboratory bench tests and utilized for in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) remedies. There are many terms applied to different forms of oxidant demand, including total oxidant demand, soil oxidant demand, and natural oxidant demand, with a variety of different methods for their assessment.
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Geo-Cleanse Sponsored and Presented for 2015 Remediation Workshops!
Presentation: Overcoming Site-Specific Challenges with Innovative In-Situ Remediation
Will Moody, Dr. Dan Bryant, and Stephanie Turkot from Geo-Cleanse International, Inc. (Geo-Cleanse) presented at several locations across the United States this past year for the Remediation Workshops. The Remediation Workshops are a series of half-day technical presentations, which provide information regarding the latest soil and groundwater technologies. The presentations provide an overview of the recent advances in environmental remediation, investigation and laboratory analysis for contaminated sites. Not only do these workshops provide technical information, but they are free to attend, and provide networking opportunities and continuing educational credits.
Geo-Cleanse presented on the technology of in-situ chemical remediation, focusing on the following reagents: permanganate, persulfate, hydrogen peroxide and zero valent iron. The presentation provided an overview of each reagent diving into the chemistry, the strengths and weaknesses, and potential applications. Two case studies were provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology and how combining remedies can be more effective for site cleanup.
The first case study discussed a former Brownfield property in Hartford, CT, which was impacted with volatile organic compounds, semi-volatile organic compounds, and extractable total petroleum hydrocarbons, including a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL). The treatment program for this site consisted of in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) utilizing catalyzed hydrogen peroxide and enhanced product recovery to address the vadose and saturated zone impacts. The second case study outlined a former manufacturing facility located in Greenville, SC, which was impacted with high trichloroethene (TCE) concentrations. The site posed significant remediation challenges, including site access (source area on top of a steep hill, plume extending into a wooded area), deep depths (up to 84 ft below grade), hydrology (low permeability saprolite overlying fractured and highly transmissive bedrock), contaminant concentrations (source area TCE concentration as high as 576 mg/L), and a large plume area (over 16 acres). The plan developed to address the site included slurry emplacement of potassium permanganate for ISCO remediation of the source area, coupled with ZVI for in-situ chemical reduction in the plume area.
Geo-Cleanse strives to provide our clients with well-designed, innovative remedial solutions, and we continue to expand our services to incorporate the advances occurring within the industry. If you would a copy of this presentation or additional information regarding our services for a project, please contact Will Moody or Stephanie Turkot.
Geo-Cleanse Presented for Carus Corporation’s 2015 Remediation Webinar Series!
Combined In-Situ Chemical Remediation for Complex DNAPL Sites
Dr. Dan Bryant and Mr. George Maalouf provided a webinar on an innovative in-situ remediation approach that addressed a TCE DNAPL site in Greenville, South Carolina. The site posed significant remediation challenges, including site access (source area on top of a steep hill, plume extending into a wooded area), deep depths (up to 84 ft below grade), hydrology (low permeability saprolite overlying fractured and highly transmissive bedrock), contaminant concentrations (source area TCE concentration as high as 576 mg/L), and a large plume area (over 16 acres). The plan developed to address the site included slurry emplacement of potassium permanganate blended with sand for ISCO remediation of the source area, coupled with ZVI for in-situ chemical reduction in the plume area. The discussion focused on special design considerations required for the combined application of ISCO and ISCR, and results to date will be presented regarding reagent distribution, geochemical effects, and VOC concentrations.
For a recorded copy of the webinar, please contact Stephanie Turkot.
December 2013 Newsletter
Geo-Cleanse International, Inc.’s (Geo-Cleanse) Vice President, Dr. Dan Bryant, recently received U.S. Patent No. 8,556,537 for Manganese-Mediated Redox Processes for Environmental Contaminant Remediation. This is Dr. Bryant’s third remediation technology U.S. patent, the first being granted for In-Situ Chemical Oxidation-Reduction of Precipitation of Heavy Metals in Soil and Groundwater in 2003 and the second being granted for Additives for Bioremediation Oils and Methods for Using in 2008.
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